Thursday, August 22, 2019
Hazard of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health Essay Coal is a solid but brittle sedimentary rock with a natural brown to black color and is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and lesser amounts o f sulphur and trace elements. Coal is classified into four types depending on the carbo n, oxygen and hydrogen content on which the higher the carbon content, the more energy the coal contains (Coal at a Glance, 2009). The amount of energy in coal is define d by the heat value measured by British thermal units (Btu). One Btu is equivalent to the amount of energy in a single match (RockTalk, 2005). The four types of coal include lignite, sub bituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. The lowest rank of the coal i s lignite and has a heating value of 4,000 to 8,300 British thermal units (Btu) per pound. This type is the softest with high moisture content, least amount of carbon a nd is mainly used to produce electricity. The second least of the four types is sub-bituminous coal with a heating value of 8,300 to 13,000 Btu per pound and contains 35 to 45 percent carbon. After addition of more heat and pressure on lignite, bituminous coal is formed which is made of many tiny layers. It contains 11,000 to 15,500 Btu per pound heating value and is an important fuel for the steel and iron industries. Of the commonly minable coals, anthracite is the hardest and has a heating value of 15,000 Btu per p ound containing 86 to 97 percent carbon (Coal at a Glance, 2009). Coal is a non-renewable source of energy because it takes million of years to form. It has become a powerhouse by the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s in America in which the people used coal to manufacture goods and to power steamships and railroad engines . It was noted that after the American Civil war, coal was used to make iron and steel and by the end of 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s, people used coal to make electricity. In the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s, coal is the mainstay for the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s business and industries. Coal stayed AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s number one energy source until petroleum was used for petroleum products that became a demand. In 2009, 93.6 percent of all the coal in the United States was used for electricity production. Coal generates almost half of the electricity used in the U.S (Coal at a Glance, 2009). Based from Gree n World Investor (2011), coal has numerous uses primarily as a source of fuel and as a rich carbon source. It also plays an important role in cement and steel industries and coal is the largest source of electricity production. Coal is mainly used as fuel to generate electricity t hrough combustion. In steel production, coal together with iron, are the two raw materials used to produce steel in which the former is used as a fuel to smelt the iron in furnace until the cast iron is further refined. Similar with electricity and cement production, coal is also being used as a fuel in cement industry. Furthermore, paper a nd aluminum industry also uses coal as a fuel since coal is cheap and very available for these types of industries that are huge consumers of energy fuel. According to World Coal Association (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"the biggest market for coal is Asia, which currently accounts for over 65% of global coal consumption; although China is responsible for a significant proportion of this. Many countries do not have n atural energy resources sufficient to cover their energy needs, and therefore need to import energy to help meet their requirements. Japan, Chinese Taipei and Korea, for example, import significant quantities of steam coal for electricity generation and co king coal for steel productionÃ¢â¬ . They also added that coal users further include alumina refineries and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Chemical products can be produced from the by-products of coal. Refined coal tar is used in the manufacture of c hemicals, such as creosote oil, naphthalene, phenol, and benzene. Despite the myriad benefits coal has to offer, t here is always a disadvantage of using it. According to Fossil Fuel Resources (2012), coal burning causes the emission of harmful waste such as carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphuric acids, arsenic and ash. Furthermore, coal emits twice as much carbon dioxide compared to natural gas in producing the same level of heat which increases the level of emission of greenhouses ga ses into the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere. As well as large factories and power industry that burn coal causes acid rain in some areas. Moreover, coal mining damages t he landscape a nd the environment as a whole plus t he large and noisy equipment used for mining may a ffect local wildlife. Transportation of coal can also be a problem since it requires extensive transportation system and causes additional pollution from vehicle emissions. Another huge disadvantage is that the coal is a non-renewable energy source and thi s millennium, coal can be depleted if burning of coal is continued in the future. Likewise, in coal mining industry, health difficulties of miners occur and fatalities due to dangerous nature of work increase. This paper would be tackling about the Health Hazard that is imposed otherwise could be caused by coal and coal mi ning. However, it is important to understand the impact of this activity to economy and environment, which could help in knowing the impact to health t hus socioeconomic and environmental effects of coal mining are at the same time discussed. Developing co untries seek to exploit mineral resources to provide needed revenue thus, mineral wealth is a part of some nationÃ¢â¬â¢s natural capital (Davis and Tilton, 2003). However, Sideri and Johns (1990) stated that mineral development does not always boost a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth and in some cases contribute to increased poverty. Some of the contributing factors for this misfortune were low level of employment, institutional corruption and mismanagement (Sideri and Johns, 1990). Coal industry development may result in national economic growth however, the benefits are not equally shared, causing local communities nearest to the mining site suffer the most. Miranda et. al (1998) added that mining as a general triggers negative impacts such as alcoholism, prostitution a nd sexually transmitted disease. According to Dr. Michael Hendryx (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"Areas with especially heavy mining have the highest unemployment rates in the region contrary to the common perception that mining contributes to overall employmentÃ¢â¬ . S ynapse Energy Economics (2009) added, referring to Appalachia where mountaintop removal for coal mining is being done, Ã¢â¬Å"History shows that the transition from deep to surface mining devastated the region economically, and that the prosperity of mining companies has not gone hand in hand with the economi c welfare of coal mine workers. Appalachia has suffered from current and persistent economic di stress, and that this distress has been associated with employment in the mining industry, particularly coal mining.Ã¢â¬ Mountaintop removal coal mining remove the miner from the process, replacing manpower with machinery, and lowering the coal companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ overhead cost (Appalachian Voices, 2012). From the article Ã¢â¬Å"Mortality in Appalachian Coal Mining Regions: The Value of Statistical Life LostÃ¢â¬ authored by Michael Hendryx and Melissa M. Ahern (2009), it was stated that the Appalachian region of the United States has long been associated with severe socioeconomic disadvantages. These results to a poor public health comprising elevated morbidity and mortality rates for a variety of serious, chronic conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and some forms of cancer. Furthermore, recent studies have confirmed that health discrepancies exist in coal mining regions of Appalachia compared with other areas of the region or the nation . These discrepancies include elevated mortality rates for total causes, lung cancer, and some chronic illnesses. It was noted that t hese studies showed that mortality is related to higher poverty, lower educati on levels, and smoking behavior, and further s uggested that environmental pollution from the mining industry is a contributing factor. In the study of Paul Younger (2004) , Ã¢â¬Å"Environmental impacts of coal mining and associated wastes: a geochemical perspec tiveÃ¢â¬ , it was stated that in the early years of coal mining, impact on the environment adversely affect long -established agricultural interests. The negative impacts of coal mining came to be accepted as a by-product of the generation of coal-based wealth d uring the time when coal trade dominate regional economies in mining districts. These negative impacts became unacceptable when large-scale mining began and took place in major coal-mining economies. It was further stated in the study that t he environmental impacts of coal mining are results of the exposure of reduced earth materials that involves coal and others, to the oxidizing power of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s atmosphere. The study recognize subcategories of impacts under five major headings consisting of air pollu tion, fire hazards, ground deformation, water pollution and water resource depletion. Production of large quantities of waste is one major environmental issue that can be caused by coal mining. The impacts are more widespread in open-casts compared to underground mining, which produces less waste. Severe impacts could cause degradation of aquatic and marine resources and causes water quality reduction. According to Johnson (1997), erosion after heavy rainfall pushes waste rock piles and runoffs to nearby waste bodies and sometimes, this lead to disruption, diversion, and changing of slope and bank stability of stream channel and t hese disturbances significantly reduces the water quality. Ripley (1996) added that higher sediment concentrations increase the t urbidity of natural waters which lowers the available light to aquatic plant for photosynthesis. Elimination of important food source and decreased available habitat for fish to migrate and spawn usually happens if there is increased sediment loads that s uffocate organisms in marine organisms (Johnson, 1997). Fur thermore, higher sediments decrease the depth of water bodies which could contribute to flood (Mason, 1997). Deforestation is also a major indirect environmental impact of coal mining especially i n opencast or surface mining. Biodiversity is greatly affected , more importantly the removal of vegetation that alters the shelter and the availability of food for the wildlife. Coal mining also poses an environmental alarm in wetlands such as estuaries, mangroves and floodplains that actually served as natural filters of pollution as well as provide habitat for aquatic organisms. These areas are destroyed through direct habitat elimination or pollution from washable coals that were washed to produc e a clean pure coal (H.A. Mooney et al, 1995). Mining activities in general has many environmental impacts but at the same time, poses a significant risk to human health. The health cost of mining operations most of the time outweighs the advantages gaine d ( Yeboah, J.Y, 2008). Possible hazard including diseases or illnesses acquired from coal mining is discussed below as summary of various studies and articles about health risks caused by exposure to coal and coal mining. The association of pneumoconiosi s and other respiratory health risks with exposure to respirable mixed dust was identified in the study of Love R.G, Miller B.G., 6 The Hazards of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health et. al. (1997), entitled Ã¢â¬Å"Respiratory health effects of opencast coalmining: a cross sectional study of current workersÃ¢â¬ conducted in United Kingdom opencast coal mines. The study carried out 1,224 men and 25 women at nine large and medium sized opencast sites in England, Scotland and Wales. Full sized chest radiographs, respiratory symptoms, occupational history questionnaires, and simple spirometry were used in the study to characterize the respiratory health of the workforce. In addition, logistic or multiple regression techniques were utilized to examine relations between indices of exposure and respiratory health. The study c oncluded that the frequency of (mostly mild) chest radiographic abnormalities is associated with working in the dustier, preproduction jobs in the coal mining industry. Although some of these mild abnormalities may be non -occupational (due to aging or smok ing), the association with exposure indicates a small risk of pneumoconiosis in these men, and the need to monitor and control exposures, particularly in the high-risk occupations. This study of respiratory health effects of opencast coal mining seems unalarming and maybe controlled since it was indicated that there is a small risk of pneumoconiosis among miners, however, coal mining effects to humans are not just limited to respiratory health. Furthermore, there are various studies that could prove that co al mining or coal combustion is a great contributing factor of respiratory illnesses most especially black lung disease. The negative impact of coal mining pollution to public health is analyzed in a study in West Virginia. Michael Hendryx and Melissa Ahern (2008) used the data from a 2001 research survey correlated with data from West Virginia Geological and economic survey showing volume of coal production from mining. Hendryx and Ahern study was Ã¢â¬Å"Relations between Health Indicators and Residential Proximity to Coal Mining in West VirginiaÃ¢â¬ which have examined the coal mining in West Virginia if it is related to poorer health status and incidence of chronic illness. The study used data from a survey of 16, 493 West Virginians merged with county- level coal production and other covariates in investigating the relations between health indicators and residential proximity to coal mining. The research sought to find whether the effects of coal mining may result only from socioeconomic factors such as inco me and education problems together with environmental exposure problems or it a lso a ffects the health aspect of the people. It was emphasized that quantitative research on health consequences of residential proximity to coal mining is limited to a few stud ies of respiratory illness, which was conducted in Great Britain. With t hese few studies, one showed no effect of coal mining but there are studies t hat found increased risks. These were the main reason why this study was conducted. The result of the study showed that Ã¢â¬Å"As coal production increased, health status worsened, and rates of cardiopulmonary disease, lung disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and kidney disease increased. Within larger disease categories, specific types of disease associated with coal production included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), black lung disease, and h ypertension.Ã¢â¬ The research found t hat the result of black lung disease is higher in men compared to women since this condition affects minerÃ¢â¬â¢s which are men. The risks for coal -associated illnesses increase with exposure to coal by-products. Toxins and impurities in coal cause kidney disease, hypertension and other cardiovascular disease. The effects also resulted from the general inflammatory or systemic consequences of inhaled particles and these effects may be multi -factorial, a result of slurry holdings that leach toxins into drinking water and air pollution effects of coal mining and washing. This study served as a screening test to examine whether co al mining poses a health risk for adults living near the mining site. The researcher recommended that confirmatory tests should be undertaken to establish mechanism of action, magnitude, and health consequences of an exposure effect. Another study of health hazard brought by coal mining is Ã¢â¬Å"The association between mountaintop mining and birth defects among live births in ce ntral Appalachia, 1996Ã¢â¬â2003Ã¢â¬ , a research study authored by Melissa Ahern et. al.(2011). This study examined birth defects in mountaintop coal mining areas compared to other coal mining areas and in non-mining areas of central A ppalachia. The researchers aimed to know if higher birth-defect rates are present in mountaintop mining areas . Moreover, this study analyzed 1996-2003 live births i n four Central Appalachian states using natality files from National Center for Health Statistics. It was stated from the study that Ã¢â¬Å"The prevalence rate ratio (PRR) for any birth defect was significantly higher in mountaintop m ining areas compared to n on-mining areas, but was not higher in the non m ountaintop mining areas, after controlling for covariates. Rates were significantly higher in m ountain top m ining areas for six of seventy types of defects: circulatory/ respiratory, central nervous system, m usculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, urogenital, and Ã¢â¬ËotherÃ¢â¬â¢.Ã¢â¬ It was found out that mountaintop- mining effects became more pronounced in the latter years (2000Ã¢â¬â2003) versus earlier years (1996Ã¢â¬â1999.). Furthermore, it was mentioned that the elevated birth defect rates are partly a function of socioeconomic disadvantage, but remain elevated after controlling for those risks. They also added that both socioeconomic and e nvironmenta l inf luences in mountaintop mining areas maybe contributing factors. In a researc h article authored by Hans L. Falk and William Jurgelski, Jr., Ã¢â¬Å"Health Effects of Coal Mining and Combustion: Carcinogens and CofactorsÃ¢â¬ , carcinogens and cofactors that may be present in coal is being tackled. As an epidemiologic evidence of carcinogenic risks in coal mining and combustion, it was mentioned that several epidemiological studies imply that the incidence of gastric carcinoma in coal miners is elevated above that of comparable segments of the general population not engaged in mining of coal. On t he other hand, the article noted that death rate of coal miners from lung cancer is appreciably lower than the rate for non-miners of comparable age. It was explained that the data obtained from various studies about lower rate of lung cancer among coal miners strongly suggest that an unknown factor probably coal dust, exerts a protective effect from acquiring cancer. It was further noted that even though the coal dust is beneficial with regard to lung cancer, it is the causative factor of black lung disease. Therefore, while lung cancer rates might not increase as a result of an expansion of coal production, black lung and other respiratory diseases would probably become more prevalent. Health effect of exposure to respirable coal mine dust according to Center for Disease and Control Prevention includes Black Lung Disease or Coal WorkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Pneumocosis (CWP), silicosis, mixed -dust pneumoconiosis and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). CWP was defined as a chronic dust disease of the lung and its sequelae, including respiratory and pulmonary impairments, arising out of coal mine employment. It was moreover defined as parenchymal lung disease produced by deposits of coal dust in the lung and the response of the host to the retained dust. The primary lesion of CWP is like that of silicosis however, the amount and nature of dust and quantity and disposition of fibrous tissue and the presence of emphysema differs. Coal macules are rounded, irregular and ranges from 1 to 5 millimeters, lesions are distributed symmetrically found in both lungs with a greater concentration in the upper lobes (Attfield and Wagner, 1992). The proportion of dust, cellular material, or collagen varies depending on the rank of coal dust inhaled (Cotes and Steel, 1987). Silicosis develops when respirable silica inhaled is deposited in the lungs and varies from chronic, complicated, accelerated, or acute. Third is mixed -dust pneumoconiosis, which describes pulmonary lesions where crystalline silica is deposited combined with less fibrogenic dusts as iron oxides, kaolin, mica and coal (Silicosis and Silicate Disease Comittee, 1988). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) refers to three disease processes which involve chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma which are all characterized by airway dysfunction (Barnhart, 1994). COPD is mainly caused by cigarette smoking nevertheless, it could also be caused by air pollution and exposure to dust. Chronic bronchitis is associated with airflow obstruction and abnormalities in gas exchange (Barnhart, 1994). Coal dust and its sequelae are not the only health hazards of coal mining. Common occupational hazards brought by mining are also applied in mining coal. According to Institute for Occupational and Safety Development (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"M ining poses tremendous risks to life and limb, not only to miners but to community as well Ã¢â¬ . Hazardous mining operations caused both directly and indirectly countless accident. Hazards presented by mining to workers include intense exposure to heat, poor ventilation, fumes, repetitive stress injury, intense noise, manual handling of heavy machinery aside from biological and chemical hazard. MinerÃ¢â¬â¢s tend to have fluid and salt deficiency due to constant sweating since hydration is very limited combined with inte nse heat especially in underground mining sites. Furthermore, miners could have increased heart stress, heat stroke, and fertility reduction due to high temperature. Poor ventilation on the other hand, steals the oxygen from the body which results to brain malfunction and this can lead to death. Vibration from handling or operating large machines could result to permanent bone damage and vibration syndrome or dead finger syndrome that could proceed to hand and finger gangrene. The constant shaking could als o progressed to digestive problems because of constant moving of internal organs. Hearing impairment or disruption of body functions such as blood circulation and hormone imbalance could be a result of noise and hazardous sound that comes from drilling, blasting among others. Manual lifting of materials can cause back troubles leading to acute pain. Based from the government statistics, a ccidents in the industry of mining was used to be 0.1% in the year 2000 of the total occupational accidents however in 2 002 it increased to 1.7% of the total accidents which is in fact only 0.3% of the total labor force was into mining and this poses a very dangerous trend for mining ( IODC, 2006). Hazards mentioned above are, of course, i nevitable due to the nature of the activity itself. Yet, there are still other ways for them, in a way, to minimize the occurrence of these while working. In line with this is the importance of risk management. To be aware of the Risk Management is very important most espe cially when involving to activities that could pose risk not only to one Ã¢â¬â¢s heal th but also to emotional, psychosocial, economical and e nvironmental aspect of an individual. Risk management is mainly the identification, assessment and prioritizations of threats brought about the actions going through or have gone through already. Through this method, t he pros and cons o f the action to be considered could be weighed. In t his discussion paper, certain risks that should have been given much attention b y the implementers of coal mining are tackled. From the hazards mentioned above, risk management that could minimize the impact includes the following assessment. There should have been even just an exhaust fan or some opening that some air could enter for them to be able to breathe as normally as possible. Also, to be able to minimize cases of deafness, miners are advised to wear ear plugs when heavy equipment is be i ng operated. Through this, noise could be minimized. It will also be advisable for the miners to have a sufficient supply of water with them as they progress with their work. Proper hydration is very much essential for them because there is poor ventilation inside the mine. The beverage they have with them should contain electrolytes for them to minimize incidence of fluid and salt deficiencies. An excerpt taken from t he article of Institute of Occupational Health and Safety Development s tates that, Ã¢â¬Å"Mines exposes workers to different types of airborne particulates, making them vulnerable to systemic toxic effects due to the absorption of coal dus t. Coupled with poor ventilation, this can trigger accidents and cause death to workers. RSI being a soft -issue disorder is caused by overloading of particular muscle group from repetitive use or maintenance of constrained postures. Miners who suffer from RSI complain of weakness of the affected muscles, heaviness, pins and needles sensation and numbness.Ã¢â¬ In this hazard, miners are expected to have protective masks that cou ld keep them from inhaling coal dust. Without the masks, this makes them very much vulnerable, primarily, to respiratory diseases and to other health -related illnesses. Presence of openings within the mines should also be considered for them to be able to breathe normally as possible. According to an article posted on www.greatmining.com, Ã¢â¬Å"Coal dust settles like pollen over the surrounding areas.Ã¢â¬ As what we ha ve discussed o n our Environmental Health class this s ummer, coal dust measures above 100Ã µm. Thus, it could only irritate the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and throat but not going further . Yet, considering that there is an occurence of anthracosis, which is detect ed primarily in the lungs. There is a contradiction between this standard measurement and association and the chemical effect of the inhalation of coal dust. According to a study conducted by Sapko,M. J, et. al, Ã¢â¬Å"Particle size can vary both within and between mines, since size is dependent on several factors such as mine type (i.e., longwall or continuous miner, along with cutting speed and depth) and coal seam type. In addition to total incombustible content and methane concentration, the coal dust particle size should be considered as an essential part of the explosibility assessment strategy in underground coal mines.Ã¢â¬Å" Coal mining creates several billion gallons of coal slurry, which contains extremely high levels of mercury, cadmium, and nickel. Although lauded by mining companies that this is a safer, more efficient way to produce coal, this type of strip mining has evoked strong protests from environmentalists and people who reside near coal mining areas. Coal mining work can be extremely dangerous, a s the numerous occupational hazards can cause critical injuries or even death. Since coal is also a necessity in our day to day lives, there is no way to be able to totally terminate or stop the operations of coal mining. All we could do is to minimize the risks that could threaten us if we are to put up or be involved in coal mining. References: Ahern M . e t. al. (2011) . The association between mountaintop mining and birth defects among live births in ce ntral Appalachia, 1996Ã¢â¬â2003. E nvironmental Research ; Volume 111, Issue 6, Pp 838Ã¢â¬â846 Attfield MD, Wagner GR . A report on a workshop on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health B Reader certification program. J Occup Med 34:875Colina N P (2006). Briefing on Mining in the Philippines and the effects on Occupational Health and Safety of Mine Workers Conference on Coal Mining . IOHSAD ; Renmin University, Beijing, PROC Disadvantages of Coal Energy- Biggest Contributor to Global Warming is Co alÃ¢â¬â¢s Biggest Drawback (2011). G reen World Investor . Retrived from http://www.greenworldinvestor.com/2011/04/09/disadvantages-of -coal -energybiggest-contributor-to -global -warming-is-coals-biggest-drawback/ Economic Impacts of Mountaintop Removal (2012). Appalachian Voices. Retrieved from http://appvoices.org/end- mountaintop -removal/economy/ Falk H L J urgelski W,Jr (1979) . Health effects of coal mining and combustion: carcinogens and cofactors.Environ Health Perspect; 33: 203Ã¢â¬â226. Hamburger T (2010). Pressure builds against mountaintop coal mining. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jan/08/nation/la na-coal8 2010jan08 Hendryx M . A hern M. (2008). Relations between Health Indicators and Residential Proximity to Coal Mining in West Vi rginia. Public Health 12 The Hazards of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health Hendryx, M Ahern M. (2009) . Mortality in Appalachian Coal Mining Regions: The Value of Statistical Life Lost. Association of Schools of Public Health Public Health Reports Volume 124. Johnson, S.W. et al. (1997), Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of Submarine Mine Tailings Disposal on Juvenile Yellowfin Sole (Pleuronectes asper): A Laboratory Study,Ã¢â¬ Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 36 Love R.G, Miller B .G., et . al. (1997). Respiratory Health Effects Of Opencast Coalmining: A Cross Sectional Study Of Current WorkersÃ¢â¬ . Occupational Environmental Medicine.:54(9): 696. Mason, R.P. (1997), Ã¢â¬Å"Mining Waste Impacts on Stream Ecology,Ã¢â¬ In C.D. Da Rosa (ed), Golden Dreams, Poisoned Streams, How Reckless Mining Pollutes AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Waters and How We Can Stop It .Washington, DC: Mineral Policy Center. Miranda, M. A. Blanco-Uribe Q., L. HernÃ ¡ndez, J. Ochoa G., E. Yerena (1998), All That Glitters is Not Gold: Balancing Conservation and Development in VenezuelaÃ¢â¬â¢s Frontier Forests, World Resources Institute: Washington, DC. Ripley, E.A. et al. (1996), Environmental Effects of Mining. Delray Beach, Florida: S t. Lucie Press. Roenker J.M. (2001). The Economic Impact of Coal in Appalachian Kentucky. Center for Business and Economic Research. Sapire R. (2012).Engulfed in a Toxic Cloud: The Effects of Coal Mining On Human Health. Harvard College Global Health Review. Retrieved from http://www.hcs.harvard.edu/hghr/2012/02/01/engulfed -in-a- toxic-cloud- the -effectsof-coal- mining-on- human- health/ Sideri, S. and S. Johns (eds) (1990), Mining for Development in the Third World: Multinational Corporations, State Enterprises and the International Economy. New York: Pergamon Press. The Disadvantages of Coal (2012). Fossil Fuel Resources. Retrieved from http://fossilfuel.co.uk/coal/the-disadvantages-of -coal Uses of Coal (2012) . World Coal Association. Retrieved from http://www.worldcoal.org/coal/uses -of-coal/ Yeboah J.Y (2008). E nvironmental And Health Impact Of Mining On Surrounding Communities: A Case Study of Anglogold Ashanti In Obuasi. Kwame Nkrumah 13 The Hazards of Coal and Coal Mining to Human Health University Of Science And Technology : Department Of Geography And Rural Development . Younger P L (2004). Environmental impacts of coal mining and associated wastes: a geochemical perspective . The Geological Society of London
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Stalin Early Life Essay * Born in 1879 in Georgia. Lived in a very hostile environment and was deeply influenced by this in his later years. * His father abused him and his mother. He wanted Stalin to become a shoemaker like himself. * His real fathers identity is highly disputed and may have been one of the various men around the town. * Stalin was a very bright boy and worked hard in his studies. He was also teased by others and bullied others too. He showed early signs of being a gangster and was respected and fear by many in his town. Becomes a Revolutionary * Lived under czarist domination and was introduced to forbidden Marxists books * Preached revolution to the workers and ran crimes in order to fund his communist operations. * Was sent to Siberia and prison many times but always managed to escaped. * In 1903 he joined with other activists to plan an overthrow of the Czarist government. Lenin saw Stalin as a man who could get the job done. * His involvement in the 1917 revolution was limited though. * During the Civil War he became the enforcer of the party and fought for the communists Family Life * His first wife Ekaterina Svanidze died in 1907. Stalin loved her very much and was crushed by her death. * They had a son named Yakov Dzhugashvili who Stalin did not care for. Later in WWII Yakov was captured by the Germans and commited suicide with an electrocuted fence. * Had a second wife named Nadezhda Alliluyeva. Had two children with her, Vasily and Svetlana. His wife and him did not seem to get along very well and one evening she committed suicide. Stalin Emerges * Stalin having been disappointed by his minor role in the Russian revolution, wanted to gain more power and make a name of himself. He wanted to be seen with the great communist leaders such as Lenin, Marx and Engels. To do his he had a plan to take control of the Communist party. * The other communists party members looked down upon Stalin because they believed he was a worthless bum who just did the grunt work of Lenin. * Assumed the position of General Secretary in the 1920s a job no one else wanted. He built up power on this position by spreading good propaganda about himself and negative propaganda about his rivals particularly Leon Trotsky. * When Lenin died in 1924, Stalin immediately began creating propaganda showing that he was Lenins most suitable successor. He spreaded negative rumors about the ideas of Leon Trotsky (Trotskyism) and told the Russian people that his ideas were the best. * In 1928 Stalin had Trotsky arrested and exile where he would eventually end up in Mexico and dieing from an assassin sent by Stalin. Stalins Second Revolution; Modernizing Agriculture and Industry * Early in 1928 Stalin launched his program for collectivization. All privately held agricultural land was seized by the State and so food production could be done so more efficiently. The food was given to the workers who were needed for the industrialization process. * Stalin also started the industrialization process analogous to the collectivization. This brought Russia into an expansion of many types of industries. * Stalin had anyone who opposed his laws branded as traitors to the state and were sent to Siberia where they would have been either shot or killed as examples of anyone opposing him. Stalin and Providence * Believed he had an important role in saving Russia from Czar domination and hostile nations. * Saw himself as a victim of persecution and conspiracy and would attack others before they could attack him. He was very suspicious, paranoid and resentful. * Avoided contact with ordinary people and praised himself with endless propaganda showing him as their great leader. Terror and Purges * By the mid 1930s Stalin would make sure he would have had absolute power in the party. The first step to this would be dealing with the surviving party members in the revolutionary days. * He held trials and made sure that the suspect confessed to his crime through torture and threat of death. He made many party members admit that they were traitors to Russia and had them shot. * Even his secret police the NKVD werent safe from him and many were killed in order to cover up any traces towards him.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Causes Of The Russian Revolution History Essay Before 1905, Russia was a country that was led by a Czar who held full power and control over the country and its inhabitants. The people of the country suffered greatly under the regime of the many of the Czars through reforms, incompetence and general disregard of the needs of the people. Repression and unrest with the peasants in Russia were the cause on the 1905 Russian Revolution. There were many causes of the 1905 Russian Revolution in which some can be traced back to 1861 under the rule of Czar Alexander II and his series of reforms, such as, the Emancipation of the serfs, and creating the Zemstva1. The Emancipation of the serfs was a reform which allowed serfs the freedom of civil rights and allowed them to own land2. There were many problems with this reform. The peasants paid more money to the monarchy than they did to landlords, and nobles kept the best lands for themselves resulting in the peasants to have land which was difficult to farm3. The reform, which was intended to help the peasants and help industrialize the country, did not actually help the peasants at all but increased their impoverish state. With an increase of population, land prices rose while income wages were kept low4. With the growth of Industrialization, the peasants were forced to find jobs in factories, and with the building of railways they were able to travel great distances for work5. This aided in an increase in literacy as items such as books and news papers were more accessible to peasants. The governmental body, the Zemstava was established in 1864 and held responsibilities such as social welfare6. The Zemstava consisted of intellects such as doctors, teachers, nurses and lawyers who often opposed intellectual values of the state. Some members of the Zemstava even had thought of a constitutional monarchy in place of a ruling Czar7. Due to these liberal changes where elected people we given some power, people began to think they could question the authority of the Czar. These reforms, along with other reforms, were still not solving the problems for the people within Russia. The people were still quite discontented and within intellectual classes and secret societies began to for8. When Alexander II died in 1881, his son Alexander III took the throne. In 1891 a great famine occurred, due to rapid industrial growth. During this crisis the Czar displayed incompetence and ill regard towards the peasants that made up the majority of the Russian population9. The government attempted to deal with the famine and mass starvation, but was slowed down by its bureaucracy and a transportation system that was unable to cope10. Politically, it was a disaster as it presented the government as irresponsible, torpid and incompetent. There were many instances that perceived the government as uncaring, as such; widespread rumors of food deliveries being held back until statistical proof was given11 showing the people were unable to feed themselves, often too late for actual help; relief work schemes set up to employ peasantry who where on their death beds; and the removal and quarantine of people who had contracted cholera, which resulted in riots from the public12. The biggest m istake the government made was the postponement of cereal exports which did not come into effect until late into the crisis. The respite of the ban was seen by the people as the main cause of the famine13. Not only did the government fail to help the people, but it was also forbidden for newspapers to publicly name the problem, even though they printed the stories anyway. November 1891, the government finally issued an imperial order asking for volunteers to help with the crisis they were unable to deal with14. Once the crisis had passed, the people no longer trusted the government as the regime had been discredited with its inability to help the people when the people were suffering. The public began to press for a greater role in the affairs of the nation. Social groups began to reappear with great enthusiasm15. Only Marxism seemed able to explain the causes of the famine and began to become a national ideology. The 1890s seemed to become a decade of social change within the emergence of civil society that opposed the czarist state. This seems to be a condition of the upcoming revolution16. It would also seem that in 1894 when Czar Nicholas II ascended the thrown, he would lead a regime that was doomed to failure with all the problems the nation was having. This was all made worse by the loss of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904, the depression and the beliefs of the people that they were not being treated well17. Under the rule of Nicholas II, the people believed they were not being treated as human beings18 as cities grew rapidly and people were forced to live in daunting and unhealthy conditions Many people suffered from debt they were unable to rise out of, and they were exploited within their jobs. In the early 1900s depression set in and many Russians became unemployed. With the Russo-Japanese war in effect, wheat exports to the far west were stopped and the economy suffered as the Czar refused to change.19 In 1902-1903, peasant revolts became more common as strikes increased. The opposition to the Czarist state, the Social Democratic parties, the Bolsheviks, the Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries, became more organized. However, these groups were often not trusted by the workers who supported mutual aid schemes devised by other workers20. The governmental scheme, the Zubatov movement was successful as it provided workers with a legal platform for protesting and allowing occasional strikes. The success of the movement worried the government about worker loyalty to the Tzar and it was shut down21. However, one still existed in 1904, led by Father George Gapon, The Assembly of Russian Working Men. At first this group was focused on forming clubs and such activities, but as time went on they became more radical. The catalyst, which led to the march on Bloody Sunday, was sparked by four members of Father Gapons association being fired from their jobs22. It expanded to a strike of over 100 000 people stopping work on 7 January 190523. The demands, the right to elect permanent representatives in factories, an eight hour work day, better wages, free medical care and access to education, were typical worker demands. The workers wanted to be treated as people with more equality, justice and dignity within the work place and end issues such as sexual harassment and ill treatment. On January 7 Father Gapon was ordered to put an end to the march. Even if he had wanted to, it would have been impossible as the people were ready to die for this cause24. Bloody Sunday was final blow to the Russian people who after this day fully revolted against the Tsarist state. 150 000 people marched on the Winter Palace. They marched singing Hymns and patriotic songs in a peaceful state of mind.25 The people believed they would present their problems to the Tzar, and the Tzar, having an obligation to the people, would help end their miseries and solve the problems they desperately wanted solved. However, the Tzar was not even at his traditional home as he had left for some quiet time and reflection with his family26. What was intended as the people of the nation coming to their Tzar in peaceful display for help turned into a day of massacre. During the night 12 000 soldiers were dispersed through the city in anticipation of the march and to prevent marchers from reaching the palace. As the marchers approached the Narva Gates, they were faced with the guns of the waiting infantry27. The soldiers fired two warning shots and a third gun was aimed directly at the crowd. The people panicked and some of the marchers dispersed, but most dropped to the ground. The soldiers, who were nervous, also panicked and open fired into the crowd. Estimations of the death toll ranged between 150-200 people, while 450-800 people were estimated as being injured.28 In the middle of the chaos, Father Gapon was heard exclaiming There is no God any longer. There is no Tzar.29 After the display of ill regard towards the peasants during the march, people, much in anger, continued to strike against the regime. In January over 400 000 workers participated in a workers strike across the country. However, without an organized leader, they did not result in much success. It was known by many that that the events of Bloody Sunday where just the beginning as shown in a letter by a student named Kerensky: I am sorry not to have written to you earlier, but we have been living here in such a state of shock that it was impossible to write. Oh, these awful days in Peter will remain forever in the memories of the people who lived them. Now there is silence, but it is also the silence before the storm. Both sides are preparing and reviewing their own forces. Only one side can prevail. Either the demands of society will be satisfied (i.e. a freely elected legislature of peoples representatives) or there will be a bloody and terrible conflict, no doubt ending in the victory of the reaction. 30 Throughout 1905, peasants continued to participate in strikes. May of 1905 is significant within the strikes as it was the the first time a strike committee called themselves soviets.31 70 000 were involved in the strike and and took charge of local military and political operations.32 This was achieved through non-official elections held throughout Russia in the beginning of creating the soviets.33 As the people rebelled, cases of arson on gentry land increased, and land seizures occurred. People from all types of work joined unions that organized massive strikes. The people began to call for a constitution.34 In September unrest continued to escalate. The All Russian Peasant Union to over 100 000 members in 42 provinces. By this time Lenin was an active member and encourage the people to fight an uninterrupted revolution that might convene until socialism was established.35On October 17 1905 the Czar issued the October Manifesto. This reform offered civil liberties, a state Duma an d a cancellation of peasant redemption payments36. As well, a large amount of land was sold to the peasant bank for resale to peasants with easy terms. However, the Manifesto did not seem to help. Provincial leaders began to complain that the peasants took the promises of the Manifesto and seized lands as the peasants still resisted tradition authority37 The people continued to revolt. In November, the country was in full rioting. By December of 1905 army mutinies began to take affect in cities and in Odessa on the Potemkin battleship. However, by this time, the government began to repress the strikes by force. Punishments, such as public floggings and the burning of peasant villages were becoming common. Between October 1905 and March 1906, The number of strikes receded from 450 000 to 50 000 soviet strikes.38 In November, The All Russian Peasants Union met in Moscow. The Union delegates demanded a few things such as a constitutional assembly and the transfer of all landed property. The Financial Manifesto of December 1905 was signed, which called for a mass refusal to pay taxes and a demand by depositors for payments39. The regime responded by arresting the delegates. A congress of Zemstva and Town Duma representatives met and to organize a proposal to the government to restore order to the nation. The proposal was made of agrarian and legal reforms. Soon things began to settle down and people began to lose interest40. There were many causes of the 1905 Russian Revolution as the people suffered under the regime of a Czar. Reforms,such as the Emancipation of the Serfs, creation of the Zemstva aided in the beginning of the road to revolution. Issues were intensified and the Czar showed incompetence and ill regard towards the peasants in the famine of 1891. These issues caused a lot of unrest within the peasant population of the Russian regime. The catalyst of Bloody Sunday and the response of repression through the massacre sent the country into a series of mass revolt that made up the revolution. Czar Nicholas IIs repressive response was met with more rebellion from the inhabitants of the country. It wasnt until the government and Duma officials came a an agreement accepted by the regime and the people that the revolution of 1905 came to an end. However, through all these issues it remains evident that the main cause of the 1905 Russian Revolution was caused by the repression and unrest of the peasa nts. 1 Maureen Perrie, The Russian Peasant movement of 1905-1907: Its social composition and revolutionary significance Past and Present 57 (Nov., 197):123-155 2 Perrie, 123-155 3Perrie, 123-155 4Perrie, 123-155T 5Perrie, 123-155 6Perrie, 123-155 7Perrie, 123-155 8Perrie, 123-155 9Orlando Figes, A Peoples Tragedy: Russian Revolution 1891-1924 (Great Britain: Jonathon Cape, Random House, 1996), 157 10Figes, 158 11Figes, 158 12Figes, 158 13Figes, 158 14Figes, 159 15Figes, 161 16Beryl Williams, 1905 Russia History Today 55.5 (May 2005) : p. 44-48 17Williams, 44-48 18Williams, 44-48 19Williams, 44-48 20Williams, 44-48 21Williams, 44-48 22Williams, 44-48 23Williams, 44-48 24Williams, 44-48 25Williams, 44-48 26Williams, 44-48 27Williams, 44-48 28Orlando, 178 29Orlando, 177 30Orlando, 180 31Eric R Wolf, Peasant wars of the twentieth century (United States of America: First Harper Torchbook, 1969), p.85 32Wolf, 85 33Robert Service, The Russian Revolution, 1900-1927 () p.31-32 34Service, 33 35Esther Kingston-Mann, Lenin and the challenge of Peasant Militance: From Bloody Sunday, 1905 to the dissolution of the first Duma, Russian Review, 38.5 (Oct, 1979) pp. 434-455 36Kingston-Mann, 434-455 37Kingston-Mann, 434-455 38Wolf, 87 39Kingston-Mann, 434-455 40Kingston-Mann, 434-455
Ordinary People is the story of both Conrad and Calvin Jarrett. Because the novel focuses on two different people, there are several conflicts throughout the novel that are specific to those individuals. The central question in Conrad's story is whether he will be able to recover after his suicide attempt. As Dr. Berger points out, half the people who attempt suicide will try to do it again at some point in their lives. The inclusion of Karen's suicide towards the end of the novel is a way of reminding the reader that Conrad may not have recovered completely even when he seems to be getting better; after all, Karen seemed to be doing well when Conrad met her for a Coke earlier in the novel. The main question in Calvin's story is whether he and Beth will be able to make amends. Their conflict is based essentially in a communication problem: Calvin believes that the way to heal the wounds of the past is to talk through them and discuss feelings, while Beth only wants to move on from the past. She dislikes Calvin's attitude and his insistence on worrying about his son. The conflict between the two parents is resolved at the end of the novel when Beth leaves. Structurally, the novel does two things. First, it alternates back and forth between the stories of Calvin and Conrad, with each chapter shedding some new light on their individual struggles and conflicts. This alternating style gives the novel a kind of mirror-image structure: just as Conrad gets better over the course of the novel until he is really healed, the marriage between Calvin and Beth spirals downward until it fails. The second structural tactic of the novel is that it begins in a world that is already in some way ruined: Buck has already died, and Conrad has already tried to commit suicide even before the first chapter opens. On the one hand, this indicates that the book is a novel about healing and rebuilding a ruined world, rather than about how that world got ruined in the first place. This structure, however, also gives the book a reverse coming-of-age feel. There are countless children's books about boys who begin the novel as innocent kids and after a series of life experiences end the novel as slightly more mature and wiser young adults (Huckleberry Finn and The Catcher in the Rye are examples.) Ordinary People tells a coming-of-age story backwards. Conrad has already been through his moment of great experience--the death of Buck--and the novel is really the story of how
Monday, August 19, 2019
Rawi HageÃ¢â¬â¢s Cockroach focuses on an unnamed immigrant of unclear, perhaps Lebanese, origin as he struggles to fit into his new life in Canada. The protagonist throughout the novel struggles to assimilate into Canadian culture, undermining peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for him to integrate through imagining himself as a cockroach that scurries beneath society. By doing this, and through showing memories of his characterÃ¢â¬â¢s traumatic past, Hage signifies the struggles, which many immigrants from warring countries face, in migrating to North America, contrasting the image Canada mostly promotes as being multicultural. Jesse Hutchinson proposes that the space created by Hage where the immigrant exists between the cultures of their homeland and their new countryÃ¢â¬â¢s, is one of possibilities and where the protagonist can retain his cultural freedom (11), while Domenic A. Beneventi examines the class divides present between the privileged and the poor, noting how the latter exper iences the city space as a place of poverty (263). Indeed, I am interested in the concept of multiculturalism through how Hage represents his immigrant characters, demonstrating that idea of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s multiculturalism as flawed. Syrine Hout discusses trauma and its lasting effects on immigrant Lebanese writers and how their writing of traumatic events creates a lasting memorial to the Lebanese civil war effects (330), which I will draw upon to study how Hage gives voice to immigrants who struggle with memories of their old culture as well as fitting into their new country. This paper will examine the techniques used by Hage to give representation to the turmoil faced by struggling immigrants as they attempt integration into the supposed multiculturalism of Canadian society. Exami... ...s on much of the time. While there are many immigrants who arrive and assimilate easily into Canada, Hage gives voice to the ones who do not, the ones most often overlooked. This creates a novel that maybe speaks to all identities of immigrants, creating a work that can truly be called multicultural. Works Cited Beneventi, Domenic A. "Montreal Underground." Journal of Canadian Studies 46.3 (2012): 263-286. Web. 24 March 2014. Hage, Rawi. Cockroach. Toronto: Anansi Press, 2008. Hout, Syrine. "Cultural hybridity, trauma, and memory in diasporic anglophone Lebanese fiction." Journal of Postcolonial Writing 47.3 (2011): 330-342. Web. 24 March 2014. Hutchinson, Jesse. "Immigration and Liminality in Rawi HageÃ¢â¬â¢s Cockroach." Veljanova, Irena C. . Perception, Meaning and Identity. Ed. Irena C. Veljanova. Oxford: Inter-Disciplinary Press, 2010. 1-14. Web. 24 March 2014.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
I'm Not an Original I sat back in the Lazyboy, Raydog shotgunned the couch, Scott rummaged the refrigerator, and Mike laid in bed. He'd been out cold since 2 AM, Super Bowl Eve. We were slothing our way through the seven hour pregame: Super Bowl XXXII, the Houston Oilers vs. the Tampa Bay Buccaneers; the results of free-agency and team salary caps. "Seeger, you know anyone with a white mini van that has a picture of a house on the side?" Scott was leaning over the sink trying get a glimpse of the vehicle pulling into our yard. I figured it out right away. The van that he was referring to just happened to be the Publisher's Clearing House Sweepstakes vehicle. "Oh my god! Ed McMahon is at my house," were the only words I could utter. And I uttered them repeatedly as I broke out of the gates and down the track towards the door. Scott beat me there. He had the door open before the men in the black suits could give the infamous suprize knock. "Wha'd I win! Wha'd I win!" Scott was jumping around like a little kid before Christmas. "Is there a Mr. Beau Jay Seeger here?" "That's me!" I was sliding across the linoleum on my wool socks, my eyes ready to fall out of there sockets. "You've just won TEN MILLION DOLLARS..." is all I heard. My brain was thumping the rhythm of my heart, my toes were tingling in my eyes, my muscles were frigid under my skin, and I could not remember who or where I was. When I came around to reality I could hear Scott say, "If what?" I must have not been away from reality for more than a few seconds. The man in the black suit, who wasn't Ed McMahon, replied, "If you can show us that you are worthy of receiving this award." I was confused. I thought that they just gave you the balloons, flowers, and the million dollars. He saw the pitiful look on my face. It was as if he'd just pulled a sucker out of a baby's mouth. "Mr. Seeger, as the members of the Publisher's Clearing House, we are obligated to find someone who can communicate on a basis of individuality. We are distributors of a wide variety of various print manuscripts that circulate around our United States of America on a daily basis.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Food, Inc is a film that lets people in on the food production in American. The film opens up in a grocery store, which has pictures of farmers giving you the idea that the food you are going to purchase is farm raised. However the film calls it a pastoral fantasy. Even though people would like to believe that their food is coming from a farm where that animal is raised the correct way that is not always the case. This film dug into certain aspects of food giving you the ins and outs on how all types of food is produced. This film is not trying to make someone turn in to a vegetarian. It is simply trying to inform people how food production has changed over the years. Something said in the film was that Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s not farming anymore, itÃ¢â¬â¢s just mass production. Chickens today are genetically modified to have larger breasts since the consumer preference is white meat. A lot of these companies are injecting hormones in these animals to speed up the growth process. Where before a chicken life span was around 80 days, with this hormone being injected it knocks about 20 days off now. The faster the chicken grows, the more chicken can be produce at a faster rate. The chickens grow at such a fast rate that their bones and organs canÃ¢â¬â¢t keep up with the rapid growth of the muscles, or the meat. Mention in the film is that McDonalds is one of the largest purchasers of ground beef, potatoes, pork, lettuce and tomatoes. Fast food nearly started with McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. When they decided to make things easier their menu and hire employees that repeated one task over and over for minimum wage, the result was the fast food occurrence that cleaned the United States. Mention in the film Ã¢â¬Å"Eating meat produced by the systemÃ¢â¬ . As long as people continue to eat meat that is not properly raised or properly killed we will continue to have the problem of how food is produced. The industry does not want you to know what you are eating. So they will sell you this dream that everything is farm raised, when in reality their feeding cows corn that produces infections, giving chickens hormone injections to speed up growth process. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing farm raised about these tactics. Joe Salatin says Ã¢â¬Å"Meet the need without comprising integrityÃ¢â¬ . There are ways food can be produced without all of the extra stuff. Salatin does his farming and killing outside. People have tried to get him shut down saying the way he produced chicken was not sanitary, but yet other companied that do produce meat has had infected meat even with them being in a factory. People drove over 100 miles just to purchase SalatinÃ¢â¬â¢s chicken. This says a lot; people do want quality produced food. The average farmer used to feed 6 to 8 people, now it is up to 126 people. If we had more farmers who practice SalatinÃ¢â¬â¢s techniques then we would be able to produce more. If there was not so much meat being produced then maybe people would not buy so much in abundance and meat would not have to be produce so fast and in large quantizes. People buy a lot because it is overly produce in my opinion. If food was not so readily available then maybe it would not be over consumed. As long as food is purchased in abundance companies will continue to produce food the way they do to keep up with how much food people are purchasing.